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Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Methodology Types and Descriptions of Hazards Preparedness Strategies Mitigation Strategies Implementation and Evaluation Conclusion References Executive Summary Planning for hazard preparedness and mitigation is a crucial step to preventing casualties and severe damage in case of a disaster. While some communities only face one or two threats, other areas have an increased risk of emergency situations and thus require thorough planning. The present paper provides recommendations for hazard preparedness and mitigation for Miami, Florida. Based on scholarly articles and official publications, it is suggested that the community will benefit from risk and vulnerability assessments, the implementation of new technologies, citizen education, and structural damage prevention methods. Applying the proposed strategies would assist the local government in mitigating the key hazards and reducing the risk of damage and casualties. Introduction Emergency management planning is a critical tool that can help to save lives in dangerous circumstances. It is particularly important to implement effective preparedness and mitigation plans in areas that are at a high risk of a hazardous event. Miami, Florida, is a large community that is located in the South-East of the United States, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to its geographic position and climate, Miami is at risk for a number of hazards, including floods, hurricanes, storms, and wildfires, and there are specific mitigation and preparedness strategies to address these threats. Methodology In order to perform analysis, the information will be gathered from official and scholarly sources. First, to identify the types of hazards that are prominent in the area, the formal emergency mitigation plan for Miami-Dade County will be consulted. Then, scholarly literature and official resources will be searched for preparedness and mitigation strategies relevant to the identified hazards. The information will be coded for common themes to produce a high-quality summary of results. The outcomes will then be interpreted and included in the recommended preparedness and mitigation strategies. The chosen approach will help to provide evidence-based recommendations that could be applied to improve emergency management in the community and reduce damage in case of a hazard. Types and Descriptions of Hazards The information provided in the Local Mitigation Strategy reveals that the Miami-Dade area is at risk for at least four major environmental hazards: floods, hurricanes, storms, and wildfires (Perkins, 2018). This means that a comprehensive strategy is required to ensure adequate preparedness for and response to all hazards. A flood is the overflowing of water onto the land where it is usually dry (Perkins, 2018). Floods can occur during heavy rain and when drainage systems fail, thus damaging houses, roads, and other structures. A hurricane is an extreme weather event involving a tropical cyclone that involves severe winds, rain, flooding, and tornadoes (Perkins, 2018). Hurricanes are the most crucial threat to Florida due to their geographical position, and there is a history of hurricanes destroying communities in the area. A storm is also a prominent threat in Miami, Florida, that involves strong winds, heavy rain, thunder, lightning, and even tornadoes (Perkins, 2018). Storms are particularly dangerous to people sailing in the ocean because they can cause boats to wreck or sink. Strong storms can also damage housing and infrastructure items, such as streetlights and traffic lights. Finally, a wildfire is a type of hazard that involves fire spreading rapidly and out of control (Perkins, 2018). Wildfires are difficult to prevent and mitigate, and they can cause damage to houses and people’s health. Addressing the community’s needs for preparedness and mitigation can assist emergency management services by reducing the severity of consequences and improving recovery. Preparedness Strategies Three reliable sources were chosen to recommend disaster preparedness strategies relative to the hazards discussed above. First of all, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2017) recommends local governments and emergency management services perform the assessment of risks and capacities regularly. This strategy would help to ensure that the content of disaster preparedness, response, and mitigation plans is current and adequate. Secondly, Alexander (2015) highlights the importance of creating disaster response and recovery plans that define responsible persons, communication schemes, means for collaboration between various response teams, evacuation methods, and other important variables. This strategy would help to ensure that the response is carried out quickly and effectively, thus minimizing the damage of a natural disaster. It is also recommended to provide education to citizens regarding the possibility of disasters and ways to prepare their houses and families for an emergency (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], n.d.). Education on methods for family and individual preparedness can help people to act correctly in case of any natural disaster, thus reducing the risk of casualties. Mitigation Strategies There are five universal mitigation strategies outlined during research that could be applied to all the hazards identified for Miami, Florida. First of all, structural mitigation efforts are crucial because it helps to prevent disasters and reduce damage (Shreve
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