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Table of Contents Introduction Weather Related Aviation Accidents Adverse Weather Phenomena Weather Minimums for Safe Aircraft Operation Avoiding Adverse Situations Conclusion References Introduction The aviation industry is one of the most important industries in modern society. This industry makes it possible for air travel to occur. Air travel is the fastest and most effective form of moving from one destination to the other. Through the efficient movement made possible by aviation, individuals and nations can benefit and prosper. Commercial flights enable passengers can move from place to place for business. Goods are transported through cargo planes, therefore, enhancing commerce. The safe and effective operation of aircraft is crucial for the benefits of air travel to be enjoyed. However, certain weather phenomena affect individual flights and might even result in devastating accidents. Statistics by the Federal Aviation Administration indicate that adverse weather conditions are responsible for 23% of all aviation accidents (Kulesa, 2003). This paper will set out to highlight some of the devastating weather related to aviation accidents in history and discuss the adverse weather phenomena that can critically affect flight safety. The paper will then give the weather minimums that aircraft cannot safely operate without and offer advice on how pilots can avoid those adverse situations and minimize the damage once they encounter the situation. Weather Related Aviation Accidents There have been several significant kinds of weather-related to aviation accidents over the past decade. On April 20, 2012, the Pakistani owned Bhoja Air Flight 213 crashed as it made its way to the airport in Islamabad due to poor weather. This crash resulted in the death of 121 passengers, making it the second deadliest aircraft accident in the history of Pakistan aviation. The weather conditions that led to this accident were a thunderstorm and heavy rains in the region of flight. The accident occurred 5.6 kilometers away from Benazir Bhutto International Airport, which was the destination of the aircraft. Reports suggest that the plane might have been struck by lightning before the crash. Other reports suggest that wind shear was responsible for smashing the plane into the ground as the pilot prepared to land in the strong winds and rain. Another aviation accident involved the Airblue Flight 202 on July 28, 2010, in Pakistan. This plane was scheduled to land in Benazir Bhutto International Airport as part of a domestic flight. The weather conditions as the plane attempted to land were dense fog and heavy rains. One hundred and fifty-two people (the entire passenger and crewmembers of the flight) were killed in the accident. Reports indicate that the poor weather present as the plane attempted to land made it necessary for the flight controllers to delay the plane’s landing. It was while the pilots of the Airblue Flight 202 were making the diversion that the fatal accident occurred. A Ukrainian flight suffered from an accident due to weather conditions. The South Airlines Flight 8971 crash-landed on 13 February 2013 following an attempt to land in poor weather. The pilot tried to land the plane in dense fog leading to the crash. Five people died because of the accident, and the plane was badly damaged. Adverse Weather Phenomena Thunderstorms are one of the weather conditions that make it dangerous to fly. These conditions lead to several weather patterns that are dangerous to aircraft. As the thunderstorm grows, there is significant turbulence created due to the internal up and downdrafts that occur within the thunderstorm. An aircraft that encounters this turbulence can be forced to gain or loss altitude, severely leading to accidents. The FAA (2010) reports that thunderstorms impede on the ability of the aircraft to fly at a steady altitude because of the turbulence created. In addition to this, thunderstorms are often accompanied by lightening, which might have devastating effects on the aircraft. If an aircraft is struck by lightning, the electronic equipment in the plane might be knocked out, making it hard for the pilot to navigate. Lightning flashes might also lead to temporary night blindness as the pilot’s vision is affected after the lightning strikes (FAA, 2010). Icing presents a danger to airplanes both on the ground and in the year. While on the ground, icing can cause accumulation of ice on crucial parts of the aircraft such as propellers and the engine inlets. Accumulation of icing on the body of the plane’s wings can lead to accidents during takeoff since it can sufficiently increase drag, therefore, preventing the airplane from achieving lift at the normal speeds (Kulesa, 2003). Icing might also lead to navigational errors while the plane is in the air. This occurs when ice affects the measuring instrumentation leading to wrong results on the airspeed and altitude parameters. The pilot might, therefore, make erroneous judgments due to this wrong measurements caused by icing. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another significant adverse weather phenomenon is wind shear, which is defined by an extreme change in wind direction and speed. Several weather conditions can cause wind shear, and these include thunderstorms, microburst, mountain waves, and jet streams. The wind shear caused by microburst present a greater danger than the other causes since they occur at lower altitudes (Rajendra

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