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Homework Help: Solved 191417

Table of Contents Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) Jungle Memory Working Memory Training Software Adaptive Working Memory Training Synthesis and Implications References Memory is an essential prerequisite of success in learning because it influences individuals’ abilities to memorize and recall information, complete tasks, and apply knowledge in daily life. According to the working memory model, working memory is a system that allows storing a small amount of information for a short period of time. This makes working memory instrumental to many everyday tasks, such as following directions, typing a new phone number, or remembering steps in a particular activity. Besides that, working memory is also important in education, where it can support learning in both children and adults. This is primarily because working memory is perceived to be pivotal to attention control since it helps to activate and maintain information relevant to completing a task. Engle and Kane (2004) state that working memory capacity “is critical for dealing with the effects of interference and in avoiding the effects of distraction that would capture attention away from maintenance of stimulus representations, novel productions, or less habitual response tendencies” (p. 149). Cowan (2014) also explains that good working memory supports kids’ cognitive development. While learning is of crucial importance for children to be successful in their future life, young learners are often more susceptible to distractions. Because of these factors, working memory training is of particular importance in early education. Researchers in psychology and education have been attempting to design effective interventions for children to expand their working memory capacity. The present paper focuses on the issue of working memory training in kids and seeks to answer a research question “What working memory training interventions are effective for children?”. As part of the literature review, the paper will consider studies on working memory interventions for children with low academic performance, as well as those diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) The study by Chacko et al. (2014) focused on a specific intervention called Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT), aiming to examine its role in enhancing working memory in children aged 7 to 11 years. According to the researchers, CWMT is a computerized training program that focuses on working memory capacity (Chacko et al., 2014). The program targets both aspects of working memory – storage and processing – concerning verbal and nonverbal working memory (Chacko et al., 2014). This means that the chosen training program is comprehensive and could potentially enhance children’s performance of a variety of tasks requiring working memory. The training is also tailored to children’s needs due to its game-like interface, which makes it easier for children to stay interested (Chacko et al., 2014). With regards to the difficulty of tasks, the CWMT uses a staircase-like design, where the difficulty increases with every completed task (Chacko et al., 2014). Overall, the design of the intervention allows suggesting that it could be useful in increasing working memory capacity, thus helping children with ADHD to stay focused and achieve goals. The methodology of the study was a randomized clinical trial, which is considered to be reliable in terms of outcomes and conclusions. The researchers recruited a total of 85 participants, who were distributed into two groups: active and placebo (Chacko et al., 2014). Only the active group received the CWMT intervention, whereas the placebo group received a non-titrating, low-level version of CWMT which proved to be inefficient in previous studies (Chacko et al., 2014). The outcomes that were measured included working memory reported ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, and objective assessments of attention, impulse control, and activity level (Chacko et al., 2014). The methodology of the study is strong, and the number of participants is adequate to measure the effects of the program. The study found significant improvements in working memory storage for children in the active group, but no differences in other outcomes were reported. This shows that the CWMT intervention is useful in increasing working memory capacity, but has little effect on the processing and manipulation of data stored in working memory. The findings were delivered in a quantitative form after statistical analysis, which means that they are fairly definite and cannot be interpreted in any other way. The main strengths of the study are its methodology and the use of a well-designed training model. The weaknesses of the study are the unequal training time, with longer sessions for CMWT Active group, and the short time interval between the study and follow-up evaluations. It would have been beneficial to check the participants’ progress after several months or even a year to understand the impact of CMWT on their academic performance, ADHD symptoms, and other long-term outcomes. Jungle Memory Jungle Memory (JM) training program for working memory in children has also received significant attention in research. This intervention is similar to CWMT because it is a web-based, game-like intervention addressing multiple aspects of working memory (Nelwan

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