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share insights on how your colleague s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain. share insights on how your colleague s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain Pain is noted to be a subjective experience that is experienced in an acute, chronic or referred state. Each pain experience has a different pathway in which the information is communicated to and from the brain. In acute pain, a person can have either an injury, burn or trauma or disease. Once the injury has occurred the body sends a pain transduction message by activating the ion channels causing nociceptors, pain receptors to open ( Heuther, McCance, 2016 p.336). Once the receptors are open electrical impulses travel through the axons of the spinal cord in two ways( Heuther, McCance, 2016 p.337). The first receptor is the Alpha-delta fibers and the second is C fibers. After transduction of pain occurs, transmission of the pain happens. The pain is now traveling down the Alpha-delta and c-fibers to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (Heuther, McCance, 2016 p.337). While in the dorsal horn and synapsis occurs,between the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn. Then the synapsis interacts with projection neurons across midline of the spinal cord. Once midline the synapse travel up to the brain and follow through to the spinothalamic tract. Depending on the type of pain whether it be acute or chronic determines what tract it will travel down. Acute pain travel the neospinothalamic tract and chronic pain travel down the paleospinothalamic tract. This is just one of the ways pai is differentiated between chronic and acute pain. These two tracts connect to the reticular formation, hypothalamus and the thalamus ( Heuther, McCance, 2016 p.337). Once there its perception is interpreted by the somatosensory cortex and limbic system for interpretation. Acute pain main purpose it to signify to the body that something is wrong and wants the body to take action. Chronic pain is pain that has lasted longer than three to six months and continues to last longer than expected or the projected healing time. Chronic pain is one that needs more study due to the fact that it is not completely understood. Chronic pain is noted to have some long term peripheral and central nervous system dysregulation. Another type of pain that has not been discussed is referred pain. Referred pain is pain that is felt distant from where the pain is actually occurring but is on the same spinal segment where the acute pain is occurring. All these types of pain and travel a similar pathway until it reaches the brain, if it is chronic it goes down one pathway and acute another. Referred pain is a type of acute pain that because it travels the same pathway though it is felt in a different place. In the medical community there has been a misconception that African American are less sensitive to pain than other racial groups (Booker, Her, Tripp-Reimer, 2016). Studies have shown that there is a significant disparity in pain management in the African American community. Many misconceptions come from the history of this country, and some come from the lack of studies on this community. Booker, Her, Tripp Reimer (2016) discussed how one of the issues in chronic pain for these patients is the appropriate tool to properly determine pain. Since pain in subjective it can be difficult to properly assess a patient s pain. In terms of pathophysiology of pain ethnicity does not play a factor in pain perception. The changes comes in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. If pain is not measured fairly and appropriately by the patient due to healthcare literacy and other social determinants of health. Biases also play apart in how pain is perceived to be felt by the patient and prescribing the appropriate medication for the patients pain, can be missed if the pain is perceived to be less by the provider. Culturally competent care and a better assessment tool if needed to appropriately assess pain in ethnic and cultural communities. This can be attributed to all pain types, but even more so acute pain as it is the one pain that is an indicator that there is something wrong. References Booker, S.Q., Herr, K.A., Tripp-Reimer, T. (2016) Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Amreicans. Western Journal of Nursing Research 38(10). doi:10.1177/0193945916648952 Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby p.336- 340 share insights on how your colleague s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain. Suggest alternative diagnoses and treatment options for acute, chronic, and referred pain. The post share insights on how your colleague s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain appeared first on nursing assignment tutor. share insights on how your colleague s factors impact the pathophysiology of pain

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